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Elmet remained independent from the Germanic Northumbrian Angles until some time in the early 7th century, when King Edwin of Northumbria expelled its last king, Certic, and annexed the region.
At its greatest extent, Northumbria stretched from the Irish Sea to the North Sea and from Edinburgh down to Hallamshire in South Yorkshire.
Early inhabitants of Yorkshire were Celts, who formed two separate tribes, the Brigantes and the Parisi.
The Brigantes controlled territory which later became all of the North Riding of Yorkshire and the West Riding of Yorkshire.
Initially, this situation suited both the Romans and the Brigantes, who were known as the most militant tribe in Britain.The Kingdom of Wessex was now in its ascendant and established its dominance over the North in general, placing Yorkshire again within Northumbria, which retained a certain amount of autonomy as an almost-independent earldom rather than a separate kingdom.The Wessex Kings of England were reputed to have respected the Norse customs in Yorkshire and left law-making in the hands of the local aristocracy.Six of the nine Brigantian poleis described by Claudius Ptolemaeus in the Geographia fall within the historic county.
Their capital was at Petuaria, close to the Humber Estuary.
The area which this kingdom covered included most of Southern Northumbria, roughly equivalent to the borders of Yorkshire extending further West.