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Gaṇarājya (literally, people's State) is the Sanskrit/Hindi term for "republic" dating back to ancient times.) is a Persian name for India dating back to the 3rd century BCE.It was introduced into India by the Mughals and widely used since then.By repeatedly repulsing Mongol raiders in the 13th century, the sultanate saved India from the devastation visited on West and Central Asia, setting the scene for centuries of migration of fleeing soldiers, learned men, mystics, traders, artists, and artisans from that region into the subcontinent, thereby creating a syncretic Indo-Islamic culture in the north.Eschewing tribal bonds and Islamic identity, especially under Akbar, the Mughals united their far-flung realms through loyalty, expressed through a Persianised culture, to an emperor who had near-divine status.It is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India.The Hindu text Skanda Purana states that the region was named "Bharat" after Bharata Chakravartin.It is a pluralistic, multilingual and multi-ethnic society and is also home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats.is used by many Indian languages in its variations.

Large-scale urbanization occurred on the Ganges in the first millennium BCE leading to the Mahajanapadas, and Buddhism and Jainism arose.

The Sangam literature of the Tamil language reveals that, between 200 BCE and 200 CE, the southern peninsula was being ruled by the Cheras, the Cholas, and the Pandyas, dynasties that traded extensively with the Roman Empire and with West and South-East Asia.

By the 8th and 9th centuries, the effects were felt in South-East Asia, as South Indian culture and political systems were exported to lands that became part of modern-day Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Philippines, Malaysia, and Java.

In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity.

Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country.Much of the north fell to the Delhi sultanate; the south was united under the Vijayanagara Empire.The country was unified in the 17th century by the Mughal Empire.In the 18th century, the subcontinent came under the Maratha Empire and in the 19th under the British East India Company, later shifting to British crown rule.