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As Maine entered the 18th century, only a half dozen European settlements had survived.
Loyalist and Patriot forces contended for Maine's territory during the American Revolution and the War of 1812.
About 200 years earlier, from the settlements in Iceland and Greenland, Norwegians had first identified America and attempted to settle areas such as Newfoundland, but failed to establish a permanent settlement there.
Archeological evidence suggests that Norwegians in Greenland returned to North America for several centuries after the initial discovery to collect timber and to trade, with the most relevant evidence being the Maine Penny, an 11th-century Norwegian coin found at a Native American dig site in 1954.
The first English settlement was the short-lived Popham Colony, established by the Plymouth Company in 1607.
A number of English settlements were established along the coast of Maine in the 1620s, although the rugged climate, deprivations, and conflict with the local peoples caused many to fail over the years.
In 1623, the English naval captain Christopher Levett, exploring the New England coast, wrote: "The first place I set my foote upon in New England was the Isle of Shoals, being Ilands [sic] in the sea, above two Leagues from the Mayne." Initially, several tracts along the coast of New England were referred to as Main or Maine (cf. A reconfirmed and enhanced April 3, 1639 charter, from England's King Charles I, gave Sir Ferdinando Gorges increased powers over his new province and stated that it "shall forever hereafter, be called and named the PROVINCE OR COUNTIE OF MAINE, and not by any other name or names whatsoever..." The original inhabitants of the territory that is now Maine were Algonquian-speaking Wabanaki peoples, including the Passamaquoddy, Maliseet, Penobscot, Kennebec and Androscoggin.He made the unsubstantiated claim that the Province of Maine was a compliment to the queen of Charles I, Henrietta Maria, who once "owned" the Province of Maine in France.This was quoted by Maine historians until the 1845 biography of that queen by Agnes Strickland A new theory, put forward by Carol B.At the time of European arrival in what is now Maine, several Algonquian-speaking peoples inhabited the area.
The first European settlement in the area was by the French in 1604 on Saint Croix Island, by Pierre Dugua, Sieur de Mons. Maine is the 39th most extensive and the 9th least populous of the U. Maine is the easternmost state in the contiguous United States, and the northernmost east of the Great Lakes. state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. It is bordered by New Hampshire to the west, the Atlantic Ocean to the southeast, and the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Quebec to the northeast and northwest respectively.In 1625, Charles de Saint-Étienne de la Tour erected Fort Pentagouet to protect Castine.