Dating tyre shekel
[Roman provincial silver tetradrachms were struck at Tyre during the reign of Trajan and later when it became a Romman colony during the expansion in the East under the Severans.] Yet here too, there is an apparent discrepancy between the historical references to Tyre as a city in decline and the evidently enormous quantity of Tyrian shekels which continued to be produced between the reigns of Augustus and Nero. Related to the issue of stylistic change is the fact that the two groups differ in their tehnique of manufacture. Their striking authorities were not particularly interested in producing good looking coins, but great care was taken to maintain their accurate value.The Teba'in (plural of teba') are noted as being the final type of currency accepted by the Temple before it was destroyed.The specific passages suggests that the term teba' represents the last stage of the Tyrian shekels, those which we now propose to have been struck by the Temple authorities in Jerusalem.
The criticism of the "bankers" of the Temple during the life of Jesu is a reflection of this situation.
The Tyrian issues evidently dominated the financial markets of the area. The Mishna is very clear about the nature of this tribute, stipulating that it had to be made with pure silver: significantly, the example given is "Mane Zori - Tyrian currency. XVII.322.], is also relevant to our discussion of Herodian silver coinage.
Such other silver coins which circulated contemporaneously included later Seleucid issues of various cities, including the mints of Phoenicia, [BMCSeleucid Kings 77-103, those of Demetrius II, Alexander II Zabinas, Antiochus X, Antiochus XI, Demetrius III and Tigranes II of Armenia.], and autonomous shekels of Sidon, [BMCPhoenicia 158-161.], Ascalon, [BMCPalestine 107-108.], and didrachms of Nabataea. Meshorer, "Nabataean Coins," QEDEM 3 (1975): coins of Aretas III (no. The phrase may refer to coinage struck in imitation of another issue, rather than to an autonomous series, and may in fact hint at an irregular issuance of Tyrian shekels in Jerusalem, the term "coined" being comparable to the Hebrew teba' of Mishna Sheqalim 2.4.
Herod conquered Jerusalem and became sole ruler of the province. He has still to contend with many hostile powers but emerges victorious from all battles. [Sidon: BMCPhoenicia 159; Ascalon: BMCPalestine 107-108; and several Cappadocian kings: BMCGalatia etc. In this regard, the issuance of silver coinage by the Nabataean kings is particularly noteworthy. The die cutters of these early issues did a highly artistic and professional job.
37-55.] The absence of Herodian silver or gold coinage has intrigued many numismatists in the past; to fill this gap, some have even suggested that he minted certain Roman aurei and denarii of cruder style or oriental appearance. Josephus' accounts of Herod's activities in Judea and elsewhere tell of the expenditure of huge sums of money for buildings and other grandiose projects, and demonstrate Herod's strength of personality, his wealth, and his special interest in economic affairs. XV, 292-298; 318; 326-341; 364; 380-425.] Secondly, as has been noted above, other cities in the area subject to Rome were striking their own autonomous silver coinage. Yet the Nabataeans struck substantial aounts of silver coins from 63 B. The Style of the Tyrian Shekels Two characteristics stand out in regard to the various shekels. The earlier shekels are of good style and are struck with dies smaller than the flans, thus permitting the entire design and inscription to be included on the coins.
The weight remained constant throughout the long period of production of these shekels, despite the various monetary changes which occured in other currencies, and the introduction of debased coins from other mints into the market. Aradus, whose impressive output of silver tetradrachms began in 137/6 B. Caesarea in Cappadocia started striking Roman Imperial silver coins under Tiberius. The money was collected to cover the expenses of Temple rituals and maintenance. XVII.318-320) gives details of the income of his three sons, who together collected 900 talents, and since Herod had many more territories, he must have had a yearly income of 1000-1200 talents, making a total of 1,500,000 to 1,800,000 shekels from taxation alone. The Mishna's demand for Tyrian shekels made all other currencies unacceptable. It is Jerusalemite." The testimony is clear that Tyrian shekels were struck in Jerusalem.